The distinction between areas, programs, and projects
Projectsare chartered to create a speciﬁed “deliverable” as efﬁciently as possible^1. They are are the ‘discrete’ unit of work. Of course, projects can still have Knightian Uncertainty, but they have a clear definition of what “done” looks like (is this true?)
Programsfocus on the coordination of a number of related projects and other activities, over time, to deliver benefits to the organization.^2
Areas are broad groups of interest like “climate” or “space exploration.” Unlike programs, they are both not necessarily focused on delivering benefits and don’t require coordination.