Stronger antitrust enforcement also convinced managers that buying other firms would be a costlier way to grow than by introducing new products derived from in-house research
complementary engineering skillswith a lot of tacit knowledge
- Licensing income is basically flat since 2005, but patents keep going up - Culturally universities were pushed away from mission-oriented research by protests in 1968 [[WTF happened in 1971? - Article]] - Small research orgs trade ex ante and ex post knowledge products - ::How is this difference than defense contractors in the 1950’s?:: - Knowledge products can be more disembodied - ::Doesn’t talk about how the capital structure of bio/software plays well with VC:: - Antitrust made it hard for corporations to enter downstream markets with general purpose tech - ::Doesn’t this argue against ‘internal research as a way to create new markets’?:: - ::Why did DuPont close it’s R&D division?:: - Scientific publications/sales for IT firms is low - ::Is it possible that the equivalent would be open source software?:: - Bio publications went up - More bio research projects suggest new products than in other industries - ::Why is this?:: - Possibility that NIH funding led to - ::Didn’t really address startups role::
::Aren’t external benefits to corporate labs an argument for corporations not to have them?::
Antitrust leads to diffusion
large corporate labs may have distinct capabilities which have proved to be difficult to replace.
The translation of scientific knowledge generated in universities to productivity enhancing technical progress has proved to be more difficult to accomplish in practice than expected.
Corporate attitude towards the organization of science in for-profit corporations was well ex- pressed in 1885 by T. D. Lockwood, head of American Bell Telephone Company’s patent department: “I am fully convinced that it has never, is not now, and never will pay commercially, to keep an es- tablishment of professional inventors, or of men whose chief business it is to invent”::Was this correct?::
Plea for Pure Science in 1883 for the AAAS address that year, in which he demanded “what must be done to create a science of physics in this country, rather than to call telegraphs, electric lights, and such conveniences by the name of science?” (Rowland, 1883)
Mowery, D. C. (2009). Plus ca change: Industrial R&D in the third industrial revolution. Industrial and corporate change, 18(1):1–50.
Mowery, D. C. and Sampat, B. N. (2004). The Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 and universityindustry technology transfer: a model for other OECD governments? The Journal of Technology Transfer, 30(1-2):115–127.