Lock-in at Local Optima is often caused by Structural Constraints. There are many systems where interlocking dependencies mean that you can’t improve the system much by changing one thing at a time (point fixes) but instead you need to ~simultaneously change multiple things, in the same way that you can only pull off certain moves by hitting multiple buttons at the same time in a video game.
Even if you are able to change multiple pieces of the system simultaneously, it usually results in an initial performance hit. Most people will not accept performance hits for the sake of long term benefits. People are more averse to short term losses than they are attracted to long term gain.
The cost in money and time of getting out of a local optimum combined with the inevitable performance hit is a major reason why Getting to new optima is hard.
So how do you break this chicken and egg situation?
In reality there is a mix between no.1 and no.2. Many technologies spend a lot of time in development and then move into a niche. SpaceX took six years to launch its first rocket
There are tons of examples of this in history: