Startups and Academia are bad at addressing structural constraints

Both systems encourage making one single clear contribution at a time.

In each case, there are rational good reasons for these constraints but it makes it hard for either system to address Structural Constraints.

Additionally, Problems that require system-level solutions often require massive teams and both startups and single labs do not have those teams. Interestingly, the §ARPA model may be able to cheat around this constraint by using externalized research. R+D orgs lie on a spectrum between externalized and internalized execution and benefits


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