An inventive solution must improve a single part or characteristic of a system without impairing other parts or characteristics of the system or adjacent systems.
Solving an inventive problem involves solving a contradiction
A technical contradiction relates to the whole system or to several parts of the system vs. a physical contradiction related to only one part of the system
Try to find statements where something both should be and shouldn’t be
Engineers from beginning of 20th century saw world today, most machines would be familiar but scaled up or working differently. (P34)
At some point just scaling up doesn’t make sense at which point you need to join two systems to create a new system
Evolution of ships: paddles→ more paddles→ paddles + sails→ sails + paddles→ Sails→ more masts/sails→ sails + steam→ steam + sails→ steam (p35)
System A + System B = System AB which has new properties that neither A nor B had. ::Emergent behavior happens when a system has properties that none of its subsystems have::
You can avoid word traps by replacing special terms with simple words^3
Using ash and clinker through the same pipe to protect the pipe itself is an example of combining two systems into a new one. This is also an example of (p37)
Animals are more than just a collection of cells - an amoeba cannot say “the era of cells continues!” Forest for the trees, systems for the cells. (P38)
Every technical system has a super system and one or more subsystem. Changes in a system effects systems above and below them in the hierarchy.
Each system has an “interest” and solutions should not harm the interest of sub or super systems. (P39)
Systems at the beginning of their development actually do not perform their given function well (p40)
Every system goes through four stages of development (p41)
The stages of development are important because if you need to improve a system you can’t skip steps
Fields act on substances
Six basic “fields” ^5
Sometimes you can add a substance to another substance in order to change how it is affected by a field (a generalization of method #11) If you can’t add a substance sometimes you can change the state of the substance (for example charging a liquid.)
S field diagrams:
You can modify an S field by
When a system reaches its own limits it joins another system and a new more complex system emerges (p65)
Describing an effect in an inventive manner (P68)
“The substance will expand when heat is applied, therefore this phenomenon could be used in all cases when we need to control very small and precise movements” ^5
Effects can be stated in the frame of science or in the frame of inventive use. (P74)
Ideal Final result (IFR)
^2:Related to the Einstellung Effect
^3:Explain it like I’m Five and Reality is Shaped by the Words we Use
^4: Computers are the thing that gets us to level 4 of a system - what other self-adaptive systems are there now as opossed to 1994.
The hierarchy of development explains why things “look” almost the same since the 1960’s and also suggest how we make things look different. Need to bring together entirely different systems.
^5: Note that the fields are fundamental forces + macroscopic instantiations of them